render: sprite: Revamp rendering process.
[chickadee.git] / doc / api.texi
1 @menu
2 * Kernel:: The fundamental components.
3 * Math:: Linear algebra, spatial partitioning, and more.
4 * Graphics:: Eye candy.
5 * Scripting:: Bringing the game world to life.
6 @end menu
8 @node Kernel
9 @section Kernel
11 At the very core of Chickadee, in the @code{(chickadee game-loop)}
12 module, lies an event loop. This loop, or ``kernel'', is responsible
13 for ensuring that the game is updated at the desired interval,
14 rendering the current state of the game world, and handling errors if
15 they occur. The kernel implements what is known as a ``fixed
16 timestep'' game loop, meaning that the game simulation will be
17 advanced by a fixed interval of time and will never vary from frame to
18 frame, unlike some other styles of game loops. The appropriately
19 named @code{run-game*} and @code{abort-game} procedures are the entry
20 and exit points to the Chickadee game loop kernel.
22 On its own, the kernel does not do very much at all. In order to
23 actually respond to input events, update game state, or render output,
24 the programmer must provide an engine. But don’t worry, you don’t
25 have to start from scratch! Chickadee comes with a simple engine that
26 uses SDL to create a graphical window and handle input devices, and
27 OpenGL to handle rendering. This default engine is enough for most
28 users to get started writing games quickly. More advanced users may
29 want to write a custom engine that uses a different I/O system.
30 Perhaps you are writing a text adventure or roguelike that reads from
31 and writes to a terminal instead of a graphical window. The game loop
32 kernel makes no assumptions.
34 @deffn {Procedure} run-game [#:update] [#:render] [#:time] [#:error] @
35 [#:update-hz 60]
37 Start the game loop. This procedure will not return until
38 @code{abort-game} is called.
40 The core game loop is generic and requires four additional procedures
41 to operate:
43 @itemize
44 @item
45 @var{update}: Called @var{update-hz} times per second to advance the
46 game simulation. This procedure is called with a single argument: The
47 amount of time that has passed since the last update, in milliseconds.
48 @item
49 @var{render}: Called each iteration of the loop to render the game to
50 the desired output device. This procedure is called with a single
51 argument: A value in the range [0, 1] which represents how much time
52 has past since the last game state update relative to the upcoming
53 game state update, as a percentage. Because the game state is updated
54 independent of rendering, it is often the case that rendering is
55 occuring between two updates. If the game is rendered as it was
56 during the last update, a strange side-effect will occur that makes
57 animation appear rough or ``choppy''. To counter this, the
58 @var{alpha} value can be used to perfrom a linear interpolation of a
59 moving object between its current position and its previous position.
60 This odd trick has the pleasing result of making the animation look
61 smooth again, but requires keeping track of previous state.
62 @item
63 @var{time}: Called to get the current time in milliseconds. This
64 procedure is called with no arguments.
65 @item
66 @var{error}: Called when an error from the @var{update} or
67 @var{render} procedures reaches the game loop. This procedure is
68 called with three arguments: The call stack, the error key, and the
69 error arguments. If no error handler is provided, the default
70 behavior is to simply re-throw the error.
71 @end itemize
73 @end deffn
75 @deffn {Procedure} abort-game
76 Stop the currently running Chickadee game loop.
77 @end deffn
79 Since most users will want to write 2D/3D games with hardware
80 accelerated graphics rendering, controlled via keyboard, mouse, or
81 game controller, Chickadee comes with an easy to use engine just for
82 this purpose in the @code{(chickadee)} module: @code{run-game}.
84 @deffn {Procedure} run-game [#:window-title "Chickadee!"] @
85 [#:window-width 640] [#:window-height 480] @
86 [#:window-fullscreen? @code{#f}] [#:update-hz 60] @
87 [#:load] [#:update] [#:draw] [#:quit] @
88 [#:key-press] [#:key-release] [#:text-input] @
89 [#:mouse-press] [#:mouse-release] [#:mouse-move] @
90 [#:controller-add] [#:controller-remove] [#:controller-press] @
91 [#:controller-release] [#:controller-move] [#:error]
93 Run the Chickadee game loop using the SDL engine in OpenGL mode.
95 A new graphical window will be opened with @var{window-width} x
96 @var{window-height} as its dimensions, @var{window-title} as its
97 title, and in fullscreen mode if @var{window-fullscreen?} is
98 @code{#t}.
100 @itemize
101 @item
102 @var{load}: Called with zero arguments when the game window has opened
103 but before the game loop has started. Can be used to perform
104 initialization that requires an open window and OpenGL context such as
105 loading textures.
107 @item
108 @var{update}: Called @var{update-hz} times per second with one
109 argument: The amount of time to advance the game simulation.
111 @item
112 @var{draw}: Called each time a frame should be rendered with a single
113 argument known as the @code{alpha} value. See the documentation for
114 @code{run-game} for an explanation of this value.
116 @item
117 @var{quit}: Called with zero arguments when the user tries to close
118 the game window. The default behavior is to exit the game.
120 @item
121 @var{key-press}: Called with four arguments when a key is pressed on
122 the keyboard:
124 @enumerate
125 @item
126 @var{key}: The symbolic name of the ``virtual'' key that was pressed.
127 For example: @code{backspace}. It's called a virtual key because the
128 operating system may map a physical keyboard key to another key
129 entirely, such as how the author likes to bind the ``caps lock'' key
130 to mean ``control''.
132 @item
133 @var{scancode}: The symbolic name of the physical key that was
134 pressed.
136 @item
137 @var{modifiers}: A list of the symbolic names of modifier keys that
138 were being held down when the key was pressed. Possible values
139 include @code{ctrl}, @code{alt}, and @code{shift}.
141 @item
142 @var{repeat?}: @code{#t} if this is a repeated press of the same key.
144 @end enumerate
146 @item
147 @var{key-release}: Called with three arguments when a key is released
148 on the keyboard:
150 @enumerate
151 @item
152 @var{key}: The symbolic name of the ``virtual'' key that was released.
154 @item
155 @var{scancode}: The symbolic name of the physical key that was
156 released.
158 @item
159 @var{modifiers}: A list of the symbolic names of modifier keys that
160 were being held down when the key was released.
162 @end enumerate
164 @item
165 @var{text-input}: Called with a single argument, a string of text,
166 when printable text is typed on the keyboard.
168 @item
169 @var{mouse-press}: Called with four arguments when a mouse button is
170 pressed:
171 @enumerate
173 @item
174 @var{button}: The symbolic name of the button that was pressed, such
175 as @code{left}, @code{middle}, or @code{right}.
177 @item
178 @var{clicks}: The number of times the button has been clicked in a row.
180 @item
181 @var{x}: The x coordinate of the mouse cursor.
183 @item
184 @var{y}: The y coordinate of the mouse cursor.
186 @end enumerate
188 @item
189 @var{mouse-release}: Called with three arguments when a mouse button
190 is released:
192 @enumerate
194 @item
195 @var{button}: The symbolic name of the button that was released.
197 @item
198 @var{x}: The x coordinate of the mouse cursor.
200 @item
201 @var{y}: The y coordinate of the mouse cursor.
203 @end enumerate
205 @item
206 @var{mouse-move}: Called with five arguments when the mouse is moved:
208 @enumerate
210 @item
211 @var{x}: The x coordinate of the mouse cursor.
213 @item
214 @var{y}: The y coordinate of the mouse cursor.
216 @item
217 @var{dx}: The amount the mouse has moved along the x axis since the
218 last mouse move event.
220 @item
221 @var{dy}: The amount the mouse has moved along the y axis since the
222 last mouse move event.
224 @item
225 @var{buttons}: A list of the buttons that were pressed down when the
226 mouse was moved.
228 @end enumerate
230 @item
231 @var{controller-add}: Called with a single argument, an SDL game
232 controller object, when a game controller is connected.
234 @item
235 @var{controller-remove}: Called with a single argument, an SDL game
236 controller object, when a game controller is disconnected.
238 @item
239 @var{controller-press}: Called with two arguments when a button on a
240 game controller is pressed:
242 @enumerate
244 @item
245 @var{controller}: The controller that triggered the event.
247 @item
248 @var{button}: The symbolic name of the button that was pressed.
249 Possible buttons are:
251 @itemize
252 @item
253 @code{a}
254 @item
255 @code{b}
256 @item
257 @code{x}
258 @item
259 @code{y}
260 @item
261 @code{back}
262 @item
263 @code{guide}
264 @item
265 @code{start}
266 @item
267 @code{left-stick}
268 @item
269 @code{right-stick}
270 @item
271 @code{left-shoulder}
272 @item
273 @code{right-shoulder}
274 @item
275 @code{dpad-up}
276 @item
277 @code{dpad-down}
278 @item
279 @code{dpad-left}
280 @item
281 @code{dpad-right}
283 @end itemize
285 @end enumerate
287 @item
288 @var{controller-release}: Called with two arguments when a button on a
289 game controller is released:
291 @enumerate
293 @item
294 @var{controller}: The controller that triggered the event.
296 @item
297 @var{button}: The symbolic name of the button that was released.
299 @end enumerate
301 @item
302 @var{controller-move}: Called with three arguments when an analog
303 stick or trigger on a game controller is moved:
305 @enumerate
307 @item
308 @var{controller}: The controller that triggered the event.
310 @item
311 @var{axis}: The symbolic name of the axis that was moved. Possible
312 values are:
314 @itemize
315 @item
316 @code{left-x}
317 @item
318 @code{left-y}
319 @item
320 @code{right-x}
321 @item
322 @code{right-y}
323 @item
324 @code{trigger-left}
325 @item
326 @code{trigger-right}
327 @end itemize
329 @end enumerate
331 @item
332 @var{error}: Called with three arguments when an error occurs:
334 @enumerate
336 @item
337 @var{stack}: The call stack at the point of error.
339 @item
340 @var{key}: The exception key.
342 @item
343 @var{args}: The arguments thrown with the exception.
345 @end enumerate
347 The default behavior is to re-throw the error.
349 @end itemize
351 @end deffn
353 @node Math
354 @section Math
356 Chickadee contains data types and procedures for performing the most
357 common computations in video game simulations such as linear algebra
358 with vectors and matrices and axis-aligned bounding box collision
359 detection.
361 @menu
362 * Basics:: Commonly used, miscellaneous things.
363 * Vectors:: Euclidean vectors.
364 * Rectangles:: Axis-aligned bounding boxes.
365 * Grid:: Spatial partitioning for bounding boxes.
366 * Matrices:: Transformation matrices.
367 * Quaternions:: Rotations about an arbitrary axis.
368 * Easings:: Easing functions for interesting animations.
369 * Bezier Curves:: Cubic Bezier curves and paths in 2D space.
370 * Path Finding:: Generic A* path finding.
371 @end menu
373 @node Basics
374 @subsection Basics
376 @defvar pi
377 An essential constant for all trigonometry. @code{@U{03C0}} is the ratio
378 of a circle's circumferences to its diameter. Since @code{@U{03C0}} is an
379 irrational number, the @var{pi} in Chickadee is a mere floating point
380 approximation that is ``good enough.''
381 @end defvar
383 @defvar pi/2
384 Half of @var{pi}.
385 @end defvar
387 @deffn {Procedure} cotan @var{z}
388 Return the cotangent of @var{z}.
389 @end deffn
391 @node Vectors
392 @subsection Vectors
394 Unlike Scheme's vector data type, which is a sequence of arbitrary
395 Scheme objects, Chickadee's @code{(chickadee math vector)} module
396 provides vectors in the linear algebra sense: Sequences of numbers
397 specialized for particular coordinate spaces. As of now, Chickadee
398 provides 2D and 3D vectors, with 4D vector support coming in a future
399 release.
401 Here's a quick example of adding two vectors:
403 @example
404 (define v (vec2+ (vec2 1 2) (vec2 3 4)))
405 @end example
407 Since vectors are used so frequently, the reader macro @code{#v} is
408 used to cut down on typing:
410 @example
411 (define v (vec2+ #v(1 2) #v(3 4)))
412 @end example
414 @subsubsection A Note About Performance
416 A lot of time has been spent making Chickadee's vector operations
417 perform relatively efficiently in critical code paths where excessive
418 garbage generation will cause major performance issues. The general
419 rule is that procedures ending with @code{!} perform an in-place
420 modification of one of the arguments in order to avoid allocating a
421 new vector. These procedures are also inlined by Guile's compiler in
422 order to take advantage of optimizations relating to floating point
423 math operations. The downside is that since these are not pure
424 functions, they do not compose well and create more verbose code.
426 @subsubsection 2D Vectors
428 @deffn {Procedure} vec2 @var{x} @var{y}
429 Return a new 2D vector with coordinates (@var{x}, @var{y}).
430 @end deffn
432 @deffn {Procedure} vec2/polar @var{r} @var{theta}
433 Return a new 2D vector containing the Cartesian representation of the
434 polar coordinate (@var{r}, @var{theta}). The angle @var{theta} is
435 measured in radians.
436 @end deffn
438 @deffn {Procedure} vec2? @var{obj}
439 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a 2D vector.
440 @end deffn
442 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-x @var{v}
443 Return the X coordinate of the 2D vector @var{v}.
444 @end deffn
446 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-y @var{v}
447 Return the Y coordinate of the 2D vector @var{v}.
448 @end deffn
450 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-copy @var{v}
451 Return a fresh copy of the 2D vector @var{v}.
452 @end deffn
454 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-magnitude @var{v}
455 Return the magnitude of the 2D vector @var{v}.
456 @end deffn
458 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-dot-product @var{v1} @var{v2}
459 Return the dot product of the 2D vectors @var{v1} and @var{v2}.
460 @end deffn
462 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-normalize @var{v}
463 Return the normalized form of the 2D vector @var{v}.
464 @end deffn
466 @deffn {Procedure} vec2+ @var{v} @var{x}
467 Add @var{x}, either a 2D vector or a scalar (i.e. a real number), to
468 the 2D vector @var{v} and return a new vector containing the sum.
469 @end deffn
471 @deffn {Procedure} vec2- @var{v} @var{x}
472 Subtract @var{x}, either a 2D vector or a scalar, from the 2D vector
473 @var{v} and return a new vector containing the difference.
474 @end deffn
476 @deffn {Procedure} vec2* @var{v} @var{x}
477 Multiply the 2D vector @var{v} by @var{x}, a 2D vector or a scalar,
478 and return a new vector containing the product.
479 @end deffn
481 @deffn {Procedure} set-vec2-x! @var{v} @var{x}
482 Set the X coordinate of the 2D vector @var{v} to @var{x}.
483 @end deffn
485 @deffn {Procedure} set-vec2-y! @var{v} @var{y}
486 Set the Y coordinate of the 2D vector @var{v} to @var{y}.
487 @end deffn
489 @deffn {Procedure} set-vec2! @var{v} @var{x} @var{y}
490 Set the X and Y coordinates of the 2D vector @var{v} to @var{x} and
491 @var{y}, respectively.
492 @end deffn
494 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-copy! @var{source} @var{target}
495 Copy the 2D vector @var{source} into the 2D vector @var{target}.
496 @end deffn
498 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-add! @var{v} @var{x}
499 Perform an in-place modification of the 2D vector @var{v} by adding
500 @var{x}, a 2D vector or a scalar.
501 @end deffn
503 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-sub! @var{v} @var{x}
504 Perform an in-place modification of the 2D vector @var{v} by
505 subtracting @var{x}, a 2D vector or a scalar.
506 @end deffn
508 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-mult! @var{v} @var{x}
509 Perform an in-place modification of the 2D vector @var{v} by
510 multiplying it by @var{x}, a 2D vector or a scalar.
511 @end deffn
513 @subsubsection 3D Vectors
515 @deffn {Procedure} vec3 @var{x} @var{y}
516 Return a new 2D vector with coordinates (@var{x}, @var{y}).
517 @end deffn
519 @deffn {Procedure} vec3? @var{obj}
520 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a 3D vector.
521 @end deffn
523 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-x @var{v}
524 Return the X coordinate of the 3D vector @var{v}.
525 @end deffn
527 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-y @var{v}
528 Return the Y coordinate of the 3D vector @var{v}.
529 @end deffn
531 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-z @var{v}
532 Return the Z coordinate of the 3D vector @var{v}.
533 @end deffn
535 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-copy @var{v}
536 Return a fresh copy of the 3D vector @var{v}.
537 @end deffn
539 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-magnitude @var{v}
540 Return the magnitude of the 3D vector @var{v}.
541 @end deffn
543 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-dot-product @var{v1} @var{v2}
544 Return the dot product of the 3D vectors @var{v1} and @var{v2}.
545 @end deffn
547 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-normalize @var{v}
548 Return the normalized form of the 3D vector @var{v}.
549 @end deffn
551 @deffn {Procedure} vec3+ @var{v} @var{x}
552 Add @var{x}, either a 3D vector or a scalar (i.e. a real number), to
553 the 3D vector @var{v} and return a new vector containing the sum.
554 @end deffn
556 @deffn {Procedure} vec3- @var{v} @var{x}
557 Subtract @var{x}, either a 3D vector or a scalar, from the 3D vector
558 @var{v} and return a new vector containing the difference.
559 @end deffn
561 @deffn {Procedure} vec3* @var{v} @var{x}
562 Multiply the 3D vector @var{v} by @var{x}, a 3D vector or a scalar,
563 and return a new vector containing the product.
564 @end deffn
566 @deffn {Procedure} set-vec3-x! @var{v} @var{x}
567 Set the X coordinate of the 3D vector @var{v} to @var{x}.
568 @end deffn
570 @deffn {Procedure} set-vec3-y! @var{v} @var{y}
571 Set the Y coordinate of the 3D vector @var{v} to @var{y}.
572 @end deffn
574 @deffn {Procedure} set-vec3-z! @var{v} @var{z}
575 Set the Z coordinate of the 3D vector @var{v} to @var{z}.
576 @end deffn
578 @deffn {Procedure} set-vec3! @var{v} @var{x} @var{y} @var{z}
579 Set the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the 3D vector @var{v} to @var{x},
580 @var{y}, and @var{z}, respectively.
581 @end deffn
583 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-copy! @var{source} @var{target}
584 Copy the 3D vector @var{source} into the 3D vector @var{target}.
585 @end deffn
587 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-add! @var{v} @var{x}
588 Perform an in-place modification of the 3D vector @var{v} by adding
589 @var{x}, a 3D vector or a scalar.
590 @end deffn
592 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-sub! @var{v} @var{x}
593 Perform an in-place modification of the 3D vector @var{v} by
594 subtracting @var{x}, a 3D vector or a scalar.
595 @end deffn
597 @deffn {Procedure} vec3-mult! @var{v} @var{x}
598 Perform an in-place modification of the 3D vector @var{v} by
599 multiplying it by @var{x}, a 3D vector or a scalar.
600 @end deffn
602 @node Rectangles
603 @subsection Rectangles
605 The @code{(chickadee math rect)} module provides an API for
606 manipulating axis-aligned bounding boxes (AABBs). AABBs are often
607 used for collision detection in games. Common use-cases are defining
608 ``hitboxes'' in platformers or using them for the ``broad phase'' of a
609 collision detection algorithm that uses a more complex (and thus
610 slower) method of determining the actual collisions.
612 Like some of the other math modules, there exists a collection of
613 functions that do in-place modification of rectangles for use in
614 performance critical code paths.
616 @deffn {Procedure} rect @var{x} @var{y} @var{width} @var{height}
617 @deffnx {Procedure} make-rect @var{x} @var{y} @var{width} @var{height}
618 Create a new rectangle that is @var{width} by @var{height} in size and
619 whose bottom-left corner is located at (@var{x}, @var{y}).
620 @end deffn
622 @deffn {Procedure} rect? @var{obj}
623 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a rectangle.
624 @end deffn
626 @deffn {Procedure} rect-within? @var{rect1} @var{rect2}
627 Return @code{#t} if @var{rect2} is completely within @var{rect1}.
628 @end deffn
630 @deffn {Procedure} rect-intersects? @var{rect1} @var{rect2}
631 Return @code{#t} if @var{rect2} overlaps @var{rect1}.
632 @end deffn
634 @deffn {Procedure} rect-contains? @var{rect} @var{x} @var{y}
635 Return @code{#t} if the coordinates (@var{x}, @var{y}) are within
636 @var{rect}.
637 @end deffn
639 @deffn {Procedure} rect-contains-vec2? @var{rect} @var{v}
640 Return @code{#t} if the 2D vector @var{v} is within the bounds of
641 @var{rect}.
642 @end deffn
644 @deffn {Procedure} rect-x @var{rect}
645 Return the X coordinate of the lower-left corner of @var{rect}.
646 @end deffn
648 @deffn {Procedure} rect-y @var{rect}
649 Return the Y coordinate of the lower-left corner of @var{rect}.
650 @end deffn
652 @deffn {Procedure} rect-left @var{rect}
653 Return the left-most X coordinate of @var{rect}.
654 @end deffn
656 @deffn {Procedure} rect-right @var{rect}
657 Return the right-most X coordinate of @var{rect}.
658 @end deffn
660 @deffn {Procedure} rect-bottom @var{rect}
661 Return the bottom-most Y coordinate of @var{rect}.
662 @end deffn
664 @deffn {Procedure} rect-top @var{rect}
665 Return the top-most Y coordinate of @var{rect}.
666 @end deffn
668 @deffn {Procedure} rect-center-x @var{rect}
669 Return the X coordinate of the center of @var{rect}.
670 @end deffn
672 @deffn {Procedure} rect-center-y @var{rect}
673 Return the Y coordinate of the center of @var{rect}.
674 @end deffn
676 @deffn {Procedure} rect-width @var{rect}
677 Return the width of @var{rect}.
678 @end deffn
680 @deffn {Procedure} rect-height @var{rect}
681 Return the height of @var{rect}.
682 @end deffn
684 @deffn {Procedure} rect-area @var{rect}
685 Return the surface area covered by @var{rect}.
686 @end deffn
688 @deffn {Procedure} rect-clamp-x @var{rect} @var{x}
689 Restrict @var{x} to the portion of the X axis covered by @var{rect}.
690 @end deffn
692 @deffn {Procedure} rect-clamp-y @var{rect} @var{y}
693 Restrict @var{y} to the portion of the Y axis covered by @var{rect}.
694 @end deffn
696 @deffn {Procedure} rect-clamp @var{rect1} @var{rect2}
697 Return a new rect that adjusts the location of @var{rect1} so that it
698 is completely within @var{rect2}. An exception is thrown in the case
699 that @var{rect1} cannot fit completely within @var{rect2}.
700 @end deffn
702 @deffn {Procedure} rect-move @var{rect} @var{x} @var{y}
703 Return a new rectangle based on @var{rect} but moved to the
704 coordinates (@var{x}, @var{y}).
705 @end deffn
707 @deffn {Procedure} rect-move-vec2 @var{rect} @var{v}
708 Return a new rectangle based on @var{rect} but moved to the
709 coordinates in the 2D vector @var{v}.
710 @end deffn
712 @deffn {Procedure} rect-move-by @var{rect} @var{x} @var{y}
713 Return a new rectangle based on @var{rect} but moved by (@var{x},
714 @var{y}) units relative to its current location.
715 @end deffn
717 @deffn {Procedure} rect-move-by-vec2 @var{rect} @var{v}
718 Return a new rectangle based on @var{rect} but moved by the 2D vector
719 @var{v} relative to its current location.
720 @end deffn
722 @deffn {Procedure} rect-inflate @var{rect} @var{width} @var{height}
723 Return a new rectangle based on @var{rect}, but expanded by
724 @var{width} units on the X axis and @var{height} units on the Y axis,
725 while keeping the rectangle centered on the same point.
726 @end deffn
728 @deffn {Procedure} rect-union @var{rect1} @var{rect2}
729 Return a new rectangle that completely covers the area of @var{rect1}
730 and @var{rect2}.
731 @end deffn
733 @deffn {Procedure} rect-clip @var{rect1} @var{rect2}
734 Return a new rectangle that is the overlapping region of @var{rect1}
735 and @var{rect2}. If the two rectangles do not overlap, a rectangle of
736 0 width and 0 height is returned.
737 @end deffn
739 @deffn {Procedure} set-rect-x! @var{rect} @var{x}
740 Set the left X coordinate of @var{rect} to @var{x}.
741 @end deffn
743 @deffn {Procedure} set-rect-y! @var{rect} @var{y}
744 Set the bottom Y coordinate of @var{rect} to @var{y}.
745 @end deffn
747 @deffn {Procedure} set-rect-width! @var{rect} @var{width}
748 Set the width of @var{rect} to @var{width}.
749 @end deffn
751 @deffn {Procedure} set-rect-height! @var{rect} @var{height}
752 Set the height of @var{rect} to @var{height}.
753 @end deffn
755 @deffn {Procedure} rect-move! @var{rect} @var{x} @var{y}
756 Move @var{rect} to (@var{x}, @var{y}) in-place.
757 @end deffn
759 @deffn {Procedure} rect-move-vec2! @var{rect} @var{v}
760 Move @var{rect} to the 2D vector @var{v} in-place.
761 @end deffn
763 @deffn {Procedure} rect-move-by! @var{rect} @var{x} @var{y}
764 Move @var{rect} by (@var{x}, @var{y}) in-place.
765 @end deffn
767 @deffn {Procedure} rect-move-by-vec2! @var{rect} @var{v}
768 Move @var{rect} by the 2D vector @var{v} in-place.
769 @end deffn
771 @deffn {Procedure} rect-inflate! @var{rect} @var{width} @var{height}
772 Expand @var{rect} by @var{width} and @var{height} in-place.
773 @end deffn
775 @deffn {Procedure} rect-union! @var{rect1} @var{rect2}
776 Modify @var{rect1} in-place to completely cover the area of both
777 @var{rect1} and @var{rect2}.
778 @end deffn
780 @deffn {Procedure} rect-clip! @var{rect1} @var{rect2}
781 Modify @var{rect1} in-place to be the overlapping region of
782 @var{rect1} and @var{rect2}.
783 @end deffn
785 @deffn {Procedure} rect-clamp! @var{rect1} @var{rect2}
786 Adjust the location of @var{rect1} in-place so that its bounds are
787 completely within @var{rect2}. An exception is thrown in the case
788 that @var{rect1} cannot fit completely within @var{rect2}.
789 @end deffn
791 @deffn {Procedure} vec2-clamp-to-rect! @var{v} @var{rect}
792 Restrict the coordinates of the 2D vector @var{v} so that they are
793 within the bounds of @var{rect}. @var{v} is modified in-place.
794 @end deffn
796 @node Grid
797 @subsection Grid
799 The @code{(chickadee math grid)} module provides a simple spatial
800 partitioning system for axis-aligned bounding boxes
801 (@pxref{Rectangles}) in 2D space. The grid divides the world into
802 tiles and keeps track of which rectangles occupy which tiles. When
803 there are lots of moving objects in the game world that need collision
804 detection, the grid greatly speeds up the process. Instead of
805 checking collisions of each object against every other object (an
806 O(n^2) operation), the grid quickly narrows down which objects could
807 possibly be colliding and only performs collision testing against a
808 small set of objects.
810 In addition to checking for collisions, the grid also handles the
811 resolution of collisions. Exactly how each collision is resolved is
812 user-defined. A player bumping into a wall may slide against it. An
813 enemy colliding with a projectile shot by the player may get pushed
814 back in the opposite direction. Two players colliding may not need
815 resolution at all and will just pass through each other. The way this
816 works is that each time an object (A) is moved within the grid, the
817 grid looks for an object (B) that may possibly be colliding with A. A
818 user-defined procedure known as a ``filter'' is then called with both
819 A and B. If the filter returns @code{#f}, it means that even if A and
820 B are colliding, no collision resolution is needed. In this case the
821 grid won't waste time checking if they really do collide because it
822 doesn't matter. If A and B are collidable, then the filter returns a
823 procedure that implements the resolution technique. The grid will
824 then perform a collision test. If A and B are colliding, the resolver
825 procedure is called. It's the resolvers job to adjust the objects
826 such that they are no longer colliding. The grid module comes with a
827 very simple resolution procedure, @code{slide}, that adjusts object A
828 by the smallest amount so that it no longer overlaps with B. By using
829 this filtering technique, a game can resolve collisions between
830 different objects in different ways.
832 @deffn {Procedure} make-grid [@var{cell-size} 64]
833 Return a new grid partitioned into @var{cell-size} tiles.
834 @end deffn
836 @deffn {Procedure} grid? @var{obj}
837 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a grid.
838 @end deffn
840 @deffn {Procedure} cell? @var{obj}
841 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a grid cell.
842 @end deffn
844 @deffn {Procedure} cell-count @var{cell}
845 Return the number of items in @var{cell}.
846 @end deffn
848 @deffn {Procedure} grid-cell-size @var{grid}
849 Return the cell size of @var{grid}.
850 @end deffn
852 @deffn {Procedure} grid-cell-count @var{grid}
853 Return the number of cells currently in @var{grid}.
854 @end deffn
856 @deffn {Procedure} grid-item-count @var{grid}
857 Return the number of items in @var{grid}.
858 @end deffn
860 @deffn {Procedure} grid-add @var{grid} @var{item} @var{x} @var{y} @
861 @var{width} @var{height}
863 Add @var{item} to @var{grid} represented by the axis-aligned bounding
864 box whose lower-left corner is at (@var{x}, @var{y}) and is
865 @var{width} x @var{height} in size.
866 @end deffn
868 @deffn {Procedure} grid-remove @var{grid} @var{item}
869 Return @var{item} from @var{grid}.
870 @end deffn
872 @deffn {Procedure} grid-clear @var{grid}
873 Remove all items from @var{grid}.
874 @end deffn
876 @deffn {Procedure} grid-move @var{grid} @var{item} @var{position} @var{filter}
877 Attempt to move @var{item} in @var{grid} to @var{position} (a 2D
878 vector) and check for collisions. For each collision, @var{filter}
879 will be called with two arguments: @var{item} and the item it collided
880 with. If a collision occurs, @var{position} may be modified to
881 resolve the colliding objects.
882 @end deffn
884 @deffn {Procedure} for-each-cell @var{proc} @var{grid} [@var{rect}]
885 Call @var{proc} with each cell in @var{grid} that intersects
886 @var{rect}, or every cell if @var{rect} is @code{#f}.
887 @end deffn
889 @deffn {Procedure} for-each-item @var{proc} @var{grid}
890 Call @var{proc} for each item in @var{grid}.
891 @end deffn
893 @deffn {Procedure} slide @var{item} @var{item-rect} @
894 @var{other} @var{other-rect} @var{goal}
896 Resolve the collision that occurs between @var{item} and @var{other}
897 when moving @var{item-rect} to @var{goal} by sliding @var{item-rect}
898 the minimum amount needed to make it no longer overlap
899 @var{other-rect}.
900 @end deffn
902 @node Matrices
903 @subsection Matrices
905 The @code{(chickadee math matrix)} module provides an interface for
906 working with the most common type of matrices in game development: 4x4
907 transformation matrices.
909 @subsubsection Another Note About Performance
911 Much like the vector API, the matrix API is commonly used in
912 performance critical code paths. In order to reduce the amount of
913 garbage generated and improve matrix multiplication performance, there
914 are many procedures that perform in-place modifications of matrix
915 objects.
917 @subsubsection Matrix Operations
919 @deffn {Procedure} make-matrix4 @var{aa} @var{ab} @var{ac} @var{ad} @
920 @var{ba} @var{bb} @var{bc} @var{bd} @
921 @var{ca} @var{cb} @var{cc} @var{cd} @
922 @var{da} @var{db} @var{dc} @var{dd}
924 Return a new 4x4 matrix initialized with the given 16 values in
925 column-major format.
926 @end deffn
928 @deffn {Procedure} make-null-matrix4
929 Return a new 4x4 matrix with all values initialized to 0.
930 @end deffn
932 @deffn {Procedure} make-identity-matrix4
933 Return a new 4x4 identity matrix. Any matrix multiplied by the
934 identity matrix yields the original matrix. This procedure is
935 equivalent to the following code:
937 @example
938 (make-matrix4 1 0 0 0
939 0 1 0 0
940 0 0 1 0
941 0 0 0 1)
942 @end example
944 @end deffn
946 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4? @var{obj}
947 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a 4x4 matrix.
948 @end deffn
950 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4* . @var{matrices}
951 Return a new 4x4 matrix containing the product of multiplying all of
952 the given @var{matrices}.
954 Note: Remember that matrix multiplication is @strong{not} commutative!
955 @end deffn
957 @deffn {Procedure} orthographic-projection @var{left} @var{right} @
958 @var{top} @var{bottom} @
959 @var{near} @var{far}
961 Return a new 4x4 matrix that represents an orthographic (2D)
962 projection for the horizontal clipping plane @var{top} and
963 @var{bottom}, the vertical clipping plane @var{top} and @var{bottom},
964 and the depth clipping plane @var{near} and @var{far}.
965 @end deffn
967 @deffn {Procedure} perspective-projection @var{fov} @
968 @var{aspect-ratio} @
969 @var{near} @var{far}
971 Return a new 4x4 matrix that represents a perspective (3D) projection
972 with a field of vision of @var{fov} radians, an aspect ratio of
973 @var{aspect-ratio}, and a depth clipping plane defined by @var{near}
974 and @var{far}.
975 @end deffn
977 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-translate @var{x}
978 Return a new 4x4 matrix that represents a translation by @var{x}, a 2D
979 vector, a 3D vector, or a rectangle (in which case the bottom-left
980 corner of the rectangle is used).
981 @end deffn
983 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-scale @var{s}
984 Return a new 4x4 matrix that represents a scaling along the X, Y, and
985 Z axes by the scaling factor @var{s}, a real number.
986 @end deffn
988 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-rotate @var{q}
989 Return a new 4x4 matrix that represents a rotation about an arbitrary
990 axis defined by the quaternion @var{q}.
991 @end deffn
993 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-rotate-z @var{theta}
994 Return a new 4x4 matrix that represents a rotation about the Z axis by
995 @var{theta} radians.
996 @end deffn
998 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-identity! @var{matrix}
999 Modify @var{matrix} in-place to contain the identity matrix.
1000 @end deffn
1002 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-mult! @var{dest} @var{a} @var{b}
1003 Multiply the 4x4 matrix @var{a} by the 4x4 matrix @var{b} and store
1004 the result in the 4x4 matrix @var{dest}.
1005 @end deffn
1007 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-translate! @var{matrix} @var{x}
1008 Modify @var{matrix} in-place to contain a translation by @var{x}, a 2D
1009 vector, a 3D vector, or a rectangle (in which case the bottom-left
1010 corner of the rectangle is used).
1011 @end deffn
1013 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-scale! @var{matrix} @var{s}
1014 Modify @var{matrix} in-place to contain a scaling along the X, Y, and
1015 Z axes by the scaling factor @var{s}, a real number.
1016 @end deffn
1018 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-rotate! @var{matrix} @var{q}
1019 Modify @var{matrix} in-place to contain a rotation about an arbitrary
1020 axis defined by the quaternion @var{q}.
1021 @end deffn
1023 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-rotate-z! @var{matrix} @var{theta}
1024 Modify @var{matrix} in-place to contain a rotation about the Z axis by
1025 @var{theta} radians.
1026 @end deffn
1028 @deffn {Procedure} matrix4-2d-transform! @var{matrix} [#:origin] @
1029 [#:position] [#:rotation] @
1030 [#:scale] [#:skew]
1032 Modify @var{matrix} in-place to contain the transformation described
1033 by @var{position}, a 2D vector or rectangle, @var{rotation}, a scalar
1034 representing a rotation about the Z axis, @var{scale}, a 2D vector,
1035 and @var{skew}, a 2D vector. The transformation happens with respect
1036 to @var{origin}, a 2D vector. If an argument is not provided, that
1037 particular transformation will not be included in the result.
1038 @end deffn
1040 @deffn {Procedure} transform! @var{matrix} @var{v}
1041 Modify the 2D vector @var{v} in-place by multiplying it by the 4x4
1042 matrix @var{matrix}.
1043 @end deffn
1045 @node Quaternions
1046 @subsection Quaternions
1048 In game development, the quaternion is most often used to represent
1049 rotations. Why not use a matrix for that, you may ask. Unlike
1050 matrices, quaternions can be interpolated (animated) and produce a
1051 meaningful result. When interpolating two quaternions, there is a
1052 smooth transition from one rotation to another, whereas interpolating
1053 two matrices would yield garbage.
1055 @deffn {Procedure} quaternion @var{x} @var{y} @var{z} @var{w}
1056 Return a new quaternion with values @var{x}, @var{y}, @var{z}, and
1057 @var{w}.
1058 @end deffn
1060 @deffn {Procedure} quaternion? @var{obj}
1061 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a quaternion.
1062 @end deffn
1064 @deffn {Procedure} quaternion-w @var{q}
1065 Return the W component of the quaternion @var{q}.
1066 @end deffn
1068 @deffn {Procedure} quaternion-x @var{q}
1069 Return the X component of the quaternion @var{q}.
1070 @end deffn
1072 @deffn {Procedure} quaternion-y @var{q}
1073 Return the Y component of the quaternion @var{q}.
1074 @end deffn
1076 @deffn {Procedure} quaternion-z @var{q}
1077 Return the Z component of the quaternion @var{q}.
1078 @end deffn
1080 @deffn {Procedure} make-identity-quaternion
1081 Return the identity quaternion.
1082 @end deffn
1084 @node Easings
1085 @subsection Easings
1087 Easing functions are essential for animation. Each easing function
1088 provides a different path to go from an initial value to a final
1089 value. These functions make an excellent companion to the
1090 @code{tween} procedure (@pxref{Tweening}). Experiment with them to
1091 figure out which function makes an animation look the best.
1093 Pro tip: @code{smoothstep} provides nice results most of the time and
1094 creates smoother animation than using @code{linear}.
1096 @deffn {Procedure} linear @var{t}
1097 @end deffn
1099 @deffn {Procedure} smoothstep @var{t}
1100 @end deffn
1102 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-quad @var{t}
1103 @end deffn
1105 @deffn {Procedure} ease-out-quad @var{t}
1106 @end deffn
1108 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-out-quad @var{t}
1109 @end deffn
1111 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-cubic @var{t}
1112 @end deffn
1114 @deffn {Procedure} ease-out-cubic @var{t}
1115 @end deffn
1117 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-out-cubic @var{t}
1118 @end deffn
1120 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-quart @var{t}
1121 @end deffn
1123 @deffn {Procedure} ease-out-quart @var{t}
1124 @end deffn
1126 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-out-quart @var{t}
1127 @end deffn
1129 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-quint @var{t}
1130 @end deffn
1132 @deffn {Procedure} ease-out-quint @var{t}
1133 @end deffn
1135 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-out-quint @var{t}
1136 @end deffn
1138 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-sine @var{t}
1139 @end deffn
1141 @deffn {Procedure} ease-out-sine @var{t}
1142 @end deffn
1144 @deffn {Procedure} ease-in-out-sine @var{t}
1145 @end deffn
1147 @node Bezier Curves
1148 @subsection Bezier Curves
1150 The @code{(chickadee math bezier)} module provides an API for
1151 describing cubic Bezier curves in 2D space. These curves are notably
1152 used in font description, vector graphics programs, and when it comes
1153 to games: path building. With Bezier curves, it's somewhat easy to
1154 create a smooth looking path for an enemy to move along, for example.
1155 Bezier curves become particularly interesting when they are chained
1156 together to form a Bezier ``path'', where the end point of one curve
1157 becomes the starting point of the next.
1159 Currently, the rendering of Bezier curves is rather crude and provided
1160 mostly for visualizing and debugging curves that would be unseen in
1161 the final game. See @xref{Lines and Shapes} for more information.
1163 @deffn {Procedure} make-bezier-curve @var{p0} @var{p1} @var{p2} @var{p3}
1164 Return a new Bezier curve object whose starting point is @var{p0},
1165 ending point is @var{p3}, and control points are @var{p1} and
1166 @var{p2}. All points are 2D vectors.
1167 @end deffn
1169 @deffn {Procedure} bezier-curve? @var{obj}
1170 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a Bezier curve.
1171 @end deffn
1173 @deffn {Procedure} bezier-curve-p0 @var{bezier}
1174 Return the starting point of @var{bezier}.
1175 @end deffn
1177 @deffn {Procedure} bezier-curve-p1 @var{bezier}
1178 Return the first control point of @var{bezier}.
1179 @end deffn
1181 @deffn {Procedure} bezier-curve-p2 @var{bezier}
1182 Return the second control point of @var{bezier}.
1183 @end deffn
1185 @deffn {Procedure} bezier-curve-p3 @var{bezier}
1186 Return the end point of @var{bezier}.
1187 @end deffn
1189 @deffn {Procedure} bezier-path . @var{control-points}
1190 Return a list of connected bezier curves defined by
1191 @var{control-points}. The first curve is defined by the first 4
1192 arguments and every additional curve thereafter requires 3 additional
1193 arguments.
1194 @end deffn
1196 @deffn {Procedure} bezier-curve-point-at @var{bezier} @var{t}
1197 Return the coordinates for @var{bezier} at @var{t} (a value in the
1198 range [0, 1] representing how far from the start of the curve to
1199 check) as a 2D vector.
1200 @end deffn
1202 @deffn {Procedure} bezier-curve-point-at! @var{dest} @var{bezier} @var{t}
1203 Modify the 2D vector @var{dest} in-place to contain the coordinates
1204 for @var{bezier} at @var{t}.
1205 @end deffn
1207 @node Path Finding
1208 @subsection Path Finding
1210 Most game worlds have maps. Often, these games have a need to move
1211 non-player characters around in an unscripted fashion. For example,
1212 in a real-time strategy game, the player may command one of their
1213 units to attack something in the enemy base. To do so, the unit must
1214 calculate the shortest route to get there. It wouldn't be a very fun
1215 game if units didn't know how to transport themselves efficiently.
1216 This is where path finding algorithms come in handy. The
1217 @code{(chickadee math path-finding)} module provides a generic
1218 implementation of the popular A* path finding algorithm. Just add a
1219 map implementation!
1221 The example below defines a very simple town map and finds the
1222 quickest way to get from the town common to the school.
1224 @example
1225 (define world-map
1226 '((town-common . (town-hall library))
1227 (town-hall . (town-common school))
1228 (library . (town-common cafe))
1229 (school . (town-hall cafe))
1230 (cafe . (library school))))
1231 (define (neighbors building)
1232 (assq-ref town-map building))
1233 (define (cost a b) 1)
1234 (define (distance a b) 1)
1235 (define pf (make-path-finder))
1236 (a* pf 'town-common 'school neighbors cost distance)
1237 @end example
1239 In this case, the @code{a*} procedure will return the list
1240 @code{(town-common town-hall school)}, which is indeed the shortest
1241 route. (The other possible route is @code{(town-common library cafe
1242 school)}.)
1244 The @code{a*} procedure does not know anything about about any kind of
1245 map and therefore must be told how to look up neighboring nodes, which
1246 is what the @code{neighbors} procedure in the example does. To
1247 simulate different types of terrain, a cost procedure is used. In
1248 this example, it is just as easy to move between any two nodes because
1249 @code{cost} always returns 1. In a real game, perhaps moving from
1250 from a field to a rocky hill would cost a lot more than moving from
1251 one field to another. Finally, a heuristic is used to calculate an
1252 approximate distance between two nodes on the map. In this simple
1253 association list based graph it is tough to calculate a distance
1254 between nodes, so the @code{distance} procedure isn't helpful and
1255 always returns 1. In a real game with a tile-based map, for example,
1256 the heuristic could be a quick Manhattan distance calculation based on
1257 the coordinates of the two map tiles. Choose an appropriate heuristic
1258 for optimal path finding!
1260 @deffn {Procedure} make-path-finder
1261 Return a new path finder object.
1262 @end deffn
1264 @deffn {Procedure} path-finder? @var{obj}
1265 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a path finder.
1266 @end deffn
1268 @deffn {Procedure} a* @var{path-finder} @var{start} @var{goal} @
1269 @var{neighbors} @var{cost} @var{distance}
1271 Return a list of nodes forming a path from @var{start} to @var{goal}
1272 using @var{path-finder} to hold state. @var{neighbors} is a procedure
1273 that accepts a node and returns a list of nodes that neighbor it.
1274 @var{cost} is a procedure that accepts two neighboring nodes and
1275 returns the cost of moving from the first to the second as a real
1276 number. @var{distance} is a procedure that accepts two nodes and
1277 returns an approximate distance between them.
1278 @end deffn
1280 @node Graphics
1281 @section Graphics
1283 Chickadee aims to make hardware-accelerated graphics rendering as
1284 simple and efficient as possible by providing high-level APIs that
1285 interact with the low-level OpenGL API under the hood. Anyone that
1286 has worked with OpenGL directly knows that it has a steep learning
1287 curve and a lot of effort is needed to render even a single triangle.
1288 The Chickadee rendering engine attempts to make it easy to do common
1289 tasks like rendering a sprite while also providing all of the building
1290 blocks to implement additional rendering techniques.
1292 @menu
1293 * Textures:: 2D images.
1294 * Sprites:: Draw 2D images.
1295 * Tile Maps:: Draw 2D tile maps.
1296 * Lines and Shapes:: Draw line segments and polygons.
1297 * Fonts:: Drawing text.
1298 * Particles:: Pretty little flying pieces!
1299 * Blending:: Control how pixels are combined.
1300 * Framebuffers:: Render to texture.
1301 * Viewports:: Restrict rendering to a particular area.
1302 * Rendering Engine:: Rendering state management.
1303 * Buffers:: Send data to the GPU.
1304 * Shaders:: Create custom GPU programs.
1305 @end menu
1307 @node Textures
1308 @subsection Textures
1310 @deffn {Procedure} load-image @var{file} [#:min-filter nearest] @
1311 [#:mag-filter nearest] [#:wrap-s repeat] [#:wrap-t repeat]
1313 Load the image data from @var{file} and return a new texture object.
1315 @var{min-filter} and @var{mag-filter} describe the method that should
1316 be used for minification and magnification when rendering,
1317 respectively. Possible values are @code{nearest} and @code{linear}.
1319 @var{wrap-s} and @var{wrap-t} describe how to interpret texture
1320 coordinates that are greater than @code{1.0}. Possible values are
1321 @code{repeat}, @code{clamp}, @code{clamp-to-border}, and
1322 @code{clamp-to-edge}.
1324 @end deffn
1326 @node Sprites
1327 @subsection Sprites
1329 For those who are new to this game, a sprite is a 2D rectangular
1330 bitmap that is rendered to the screen. For 2D games, sprites are the
1331 most essential graphical abstraction. They are used for drawing maps,
1332 players, NPCs, items, particles, text, etc. In Chickadee, bitmaps are
1333 stored in textures (@pxref{Textures}) and can be used to draw sprites
1334 via the @code{draw-sprite} procedure.
1336 @deffn {Procedure} draw-sprite @var{texture} @var{position} @
1337 [#:tint white] [#:origin] [#:scale] [#:rotation] [#:blend-mode alpha] @
1338 [#:rect]
1340 Draw @var{texture} at @var{position}.
1342 Optionally, other transformations may be applied to the sprite.
1343 @var{rotation} specifies the angle to rotate the sprite, in radians.
1344 @var{scale} specifies the scaling factor as a 2D vector. All
1345 transformations are applied relative to @var{origin}, a 2D vector,
1346 which defaults to the lower-left corner.
1348 @var{tint} specifies the color to multiply against all the sprite's
1349 pixels. By default white is used, which does no tinting at all.
1351 Alpha blending is used by default but the blending method can be
1352 changed by specifying @var{blend-mode}.
1354 The area drawn to is as big as the texture, by default. To draw to an
1355 arbitrary section of the screen, specify @var{rect}.
1356 @end deffn
1358 It's not uncommon to need to draw hundreds or thousands of sprites
1359 each frame. However, GPUs (graphics processing units) are tricky
1360 beasts that prefer to be sent few, large chunks of data to render
1361 rather than many, small chunks. Using @code{draw-sprite} on its own
1362 will involve at least one GPU call @emph{per sprite}, which will
1363 quickly lead to poor performance. To deal with this, a technique
1364 known as ``sprite batching'' can be used. Instead of drawing each
1365 sprite immediately, the sprite batch will build up a large of buffer
1366 of sprites to draw and defer rendering until the last possible moment.
1367 Batching isn't a panacea, though. Batching only works if the sprites
1368 being drawn share as much in common as possible. Every time you draw
1369 a sprite with a different texture or blend mode, the batch will be
1370 sent off to the GPU. Therefore, batching is most useful if you
1371 minimize such changes. A good strategy for reducing texture changes
1372 is to stuff many bitmaps into a single image file and create a
1373 ``texture atlas'' (@pxref{Textures}) to access the sub-images within.
1375 Taking advantage of sprite batching in Chickadee is easy, just wrap
1376 the code that is calling @code{draw-sprite} a lot in the
1377 @code{with-batched-sprites} form.
1379 @deffn {Syntax} with-batched-sprites @var{body} @dots{}
1380 Use batched rendering for all @code{draw-sprite} calls within
1381 @var{body}.
1382 @end deffn
1384 With a basic sprite abstraction in place, it's possible to build other
1385 abstractions on top of it. One such example is the ``nine patch''. A
1386 nine patch is a sprite that can be rendered at various sizes without
1387 becoming distorted. This is achieved by dividing up the sprite into
1388 nine regions:
1390 @itemize
1391 @item
1392 the center, which can be scaled horizontally and vertically
1393 @item
1394 the four corners, which can never be scaled
1395 @item
1396 the left and right sides, which can be scaled vertically
1397 @item
1398 the top and bottom sides, which can be scaled horizontally
1399 @end itemize
1401 The one caveat is that the bitmap regions must be designed in such a
1402 way so that they are not distorted when stretched along the affected
1403 axes. For example, that means that the top and bottom sides could
1404 have varying colored pixels vertically, but not horizontally.
1406 The most common application of this technique is for graphical user
1407 interface widgets like buttons and dialog boxes. By using a nine
1408 patch, they can be rendered at any size without unappealing scaling
1409 artifacts.
1411 @deffn {Procedure} draw-nine-patch @var{texture} @var{rect} @
1412 [#:margin 0] [#:top-margin margin] [#:bottom-margin margin] @
1413 [#:left-margin margin] [#:right-margin margin] @
1414 [#:origin] [#:scale] [#:rotation] [#:blend-mode alpha]
1416 Draw a nine patch sprite. A nine patch sprite renders @var{texture}
1417 as a @var{width} x @var{height} rectangle whose stretchable areas are
1418 defined by the given margin measurements @var{top-margin},
1419 @var{bottom-margin}, @var{left-margin}, and @var{right-margin}. The
1420 @var{margin} argument may be used to configure all four margins at
1421 once.
1423 Refer to @code{draw-sprite} (@pxref{Sprites}) for information about
1424 the other arguments.
1425 @end deffn
1427 @node Tile Maps
1428 @subsection Tile Maps
1430 A tile map is a scene created by composing lots of small sprites,
1431 called ``tiles'', into a larger image. One program for editing such
1432 maps is called @url{,Tiled}. Chickadee has native
1433 support for loading and rendering Tiled maps in the @code{(chickadee
1434 render tiled)} module.
1436 @deffn {Procedure} load-tile-map @var{file-name}
1437 Load the Tiled formatted map in @var{file-name} and return a new tile
1438 map object.
1439 @end deffn
1441 @deffn {Procedure} draw-tile-map @var{tile-map} [#:layers] [#:region] @
1442 [#:origin] [#:position] [#:scale] [#:rotation]
1444 Draw the layers of @var{tile-map}. By default, all layers are drawn.
1445 To draw a subset of the available layers, pass a list of layer ids
1446 using the @var{layers} keyword argument.
1448 Refer to @code{draw-sprite} (@pxref{Sprites}) for information about
1449 the other arguments.
1450 @end deffn
1452 @node Lines and Shapes
1453 @subsection Lines and Shapes
1455 Sprites are fun, but sometimes simple, untextured lines and polygons
1456 are desired. That's where the @code{(chickadee render shapes)} module
1457 comes in!
1459 @deffn {Procedure} draw-line @var{start} @var{end} @
1460 [#:thickness 0.5] [#:feather 1.0] [#:cap round] [#:color] @
1461 [#:shader]
1463 Draw a line segment from @var{start} to @var{end}. The line will be
1464 @var{thickness} pixels thick with an antialiased border @var{feather}
1465 pixels wide. The line will be colored @var{color}. @var{cap}
1466 specifies the type of end cap that should be used to terminate the
1467 lines, either @code{none}, @code{butt}, @code{square}, @code{round},
1468 @code{triangle-in}, or @code{triangle-out}. Advanced users may use
1469 the @var{shader} argument to override the built-in line segment
1470 shader.
1471 @end deffn
1473 @deffn {Procedure} draw-bezier-curve @var{bezier} [#:segments 32] @
1474 [#:control-points?] [#:tangents?] @
1475 [#:control-point-size 8] @
1476 [#:control-point-color yellow] @
1477 [#:tangent-color yellow] @
1478 [#:thickness 0.5] [#:feather 1.0] @
1479 [#:matrix]
1481 Draw the curve defined by @var{bezier} using a resolution of N
1482 @var{segments}. When @var{control-points?} is @code{#t}, the control
1483 points are rendered as squares of size @var{control-point-size} pixels
1484 and a color of @var{control-point-color}. When @var{tangents?} is
1485 @code{#t}, the tangent lines from terminal point to control point are
1486 rendered using the color @var{tangent-color}.
1488 All line segments rendered use @code{draw-line}, and thus the
1489 arguments @var{thickness} and @var{feather} have the same effect as in
1490 that procedure.
1492 A custom @var{matrix} may be passed for applications that require more
1493 control over the final output.
1494 @end deffn
1496 @deffn {Procedure} draw-bezier-path @var{path} [#:segments 32] @
1497 [#:control-points?] [#:tangents?] @
1498 [#:control-point-size 8] @
1499 [#:control-point-color yellow] @
1500 [#:tangent-color yellow] @
1501 [#:thickness 0.5] [#:feather 1.0] @
1502 [#:matrix]
1504 Render @var{path}, a list of bezier curves. See the documentation for
1505 @code{draw-bezier-curve} for an explanation of all the keyword
1506 arguments.
1507 @end deffn
1509 @node Fonts
1510 @subsection Fonts
1512 Printing text to the screen is quite easy:
1514 @example
1515 (draw-text "Hello, world" (vec2 100.0 100.0))
1516 @end example
1518 Chickadee loads and renders bitmap fonts in the
1519 @url{,
1520 Angel Code format}. A default font named ``Good Neighbors'' is
1521 built-in to Chickadee and is used for all text rendering operations
1522 where a font is not specified, as is the case in the above example.
1524 The following procedures can be found in the @code{(chickadee render
1525 font)} module:
1527 @deffn {Procedure} load-font @var{file}
1528 Load the Angel Code font (in either XML or FNT format) in @var{file}
1529 and return a new font object.
1530 @end deffn
1532 @deffn {Procedure} font? @var{obj}
1533 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a font object.
1534 @end deffn
1536 @deffn {Procedure} font-face @var{font}
1537 Return the name of @var{font}.
1538 @end deffn
1540 @deffn {Procedure} font-line-height @var{font}
1541 Return the line height of @var{font}.
1542 @end deffn
1544 @deffn {Procedure} font-line-height @var{font}
1545 Return the line height of @var{font}.
1546 @end deffn
1548 @deffn {Procedure} font-bold? @var{font}
1549 Return @code{#t} if @var{font} is a bold font.
1550 @end deffn
1552 @deffn {Procedure} font-italic? @var{font}
1553 Return @code{#t} if @var{font} is an italicized font.
1554 @end deffn
1556 @deffn {Procedure} draw-text @var{text} @var{position}
1557 [#:font] [#:origin] [#:scale] [#:rotation] [#:blend-mode]
1558 [#:start 0] [#:end @code{(string-length text)}]
1560 Draw the string @var{text} with the first character starting at
1561 @var{position} using @var{font}. If @var{font} is not specified, a
1562 built-in font is used.
1564 @example
1565 (draw-text font "Hello, world!" (vec2 128.0 128.0))
1566 @end example
1568 To render a substring of @var{text}, use the @var{start} and @var{end}
1569 arguments.
1571 Refer to @code{draw-sprite} (@pxref{Sprites}) for information about
1572 the other arguments.
1573 @end deffn
1575 @node Particles
1576 @subsection Particles
1578 Effects like smoke, fire, sparks, etc. are often achieved by animating
1579 lots of little, short-lived sprites known as ``particles''. In fact,
1580 all of these effects, and more, can be accomplished by turning a few
1581 configuration knobs in a ``particle system''. A particle system takes
1582 care of managing the many miniscule moving morsels so the developer
1583 can quickly produce an effect and move on with their life. The
1584 @code{(chickadee render particles)} module provides an API for
1585 manipulating particle systems.
1587 Below is an example of a very simple particle system that utilizes
1588 nearly all of the default configuration settings:
1590 @example
1591 (use-modules (chickadee render particles))
1592 (define texture (load-image "particle.png"))
1593 (define particles (make-particles 2000 #:texture texture))
1594 @end example
1596 In order to put particles into a particle system, a particle
1597 ``emitter'' is needed. Emitters know where to spawn new particles,
1598 how many of them to spawn, and for how long they should do it.
1600 Below is an example of an emitter that spawns 16 particles per frame
1601 at the coordinates @code{(320, 240)}:
1603 @example
1604 (use-modules (chickadee math vector))
1605 (define emitter (make-particle-emitter (vec2 320.0 240.0) 16))
1606 (add-particle-emitter particles emitter)
1607 @end example
1609 To see all of the tweakable knobs and switches, read on!
1611 @deffn {Procedure} make-particles @var{capacity} [#:blend-mode @code{alpha}] @
1612 [#:color white] [#:end-color transparent] [#:texture] @
1613 [#:animation-rows 1] [#:animation-columns 1] [#:width] [#:height] @
1614 [#:speed-range (vec2 0.1 1.0)] [#:acceleration-range (vec2 0.0 0.1)] @
1615 [#:direction-range (vec2 0 (* 2 pi))] [#:lifetime 30] [#:sort]
1617 Return a new particle system that may contain up to @var{capacity}
1618 particles. Achieving the desired particle effect involves tweaking
1619 the following keyword arguments as needed:
1621 - @var{blend-mode}: Pixel blending mode. @code{alpha} by default.
1622 (@pxref{Blending} for more about blend modes).
1624 - @var{start-color}: The tint color of the particle at the beginning of its
1625 life. White by default.
1627 - @var{end-color}: The tint color of the particle at the end of of its
1628 life. Completely transparent by default for a fade-out effect. The
1629 color in the middle of a particle's life will be an interpolation of
1630 @var{start-color} and @var{end-color}.
1632 - @var{texture}: The texture applied to the particles. The texture
1633 may be subdivided into many animation frames.
1635 - @var{animation-rows}: How many animation frame rows there are in the
1636 texture. Default is 1.
1638 - @var{animation-columns}: How many animation frame columns there are
1639 in the texture. Default is 1.
1641 - @var{width}: The width of each particle. By default, the width of
1642 an animation frame (in pixels) is used.
1644 - @var{height}: The height of each particle. By default, the height
1645 of an animation frame (in pixels) is used.
1647 - @var{speed-range}: A 2D vector containing the min and max particle
1648 speed. Each particle will have a speed chosen at random from this
1649 range. By default, speed ranges from 0.1 to 1.0.
1651 - @var{acceleration-range}: A 2D vector containing the min and max
1652 particle acceleration. Each particle will have an acceleration chosen
1653 at random from this range. By default, acceleration ranges from 0.0
1654 to 0.1.
1656 - @var{direction-range}: A 2D vector containing the min and max
1657 particle direction as an angle in radians. Each particle will have a
1658 direction chosen at random from this range. By default, the range
1659 covers all possible angles.
1661 - @var{lifetime}: How long each particle lives, measured in
1662 updates. 30 by default.
1664 - @var{sort}: @code{youngest} if youngest particle should be drawn
1665 last or @code{oldest} for the reverse. By default, no sorting is
1666 applied at all.
1667 @end deffn
1669 @deffn {Procedure} particles? @var{obj}
1670 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a particle system.
1671 @end deffn
1673 @deffn {Procedure} update-particles @var{particles}
1674 Advance the simulation of @var{particles}.
1675 @end deffn
1677 @deffn {Procedure} draw-particles @var{particles}
1678 Render @var{particles}.
1679 @end deffn
1681 @deffn {Procedure} draw-particles* @var{particles} @var{matrix}
1682 Render @var{particles} with @var{matrix} applied.
1683 @end deffn
1685 @deffn {Procedure} make-particle-emitter @var{spawn-area} @
1686 @var{rate} [@var{duration}]
1688 Return a new particle emitter that spawns @var{rate} particles per
1689 frame within @var{spawn-area} (a rectangle or 2D vector) for
1690 @var{duration} frames. If @var{duration} is not specified, the
1691 emitter will spawn particles indefinitely.
1692 @end deffn
1694 @deffn {Procedure} particle-emitter? @var{obj}
1695 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a particle emitter.
1696 @end deffn
1698 @deffn {Procedure} particle-emitter-spawn-area @var{emitter}
1699 Return the spawn area for @var{emitter}.
1700 @end deffn
1702 @deffn {Procedure} particle-emitter-rate @var{emitter}
1703 Return the number of particles that @var{emitter} will spawn per
1704 frame.
1705 @end deffn
1707 @deffn {Procedure} particle-emitter-life @var{emitter}
1708 Return the number of frames remaining in @var{emitter}'s lifespan.
1709 @end deffn
1711 @deffn {Procedure} particle-emitter-done? @var{emitter}
1712 Return @code{#t} if @var{emitter} has finished spawning particlces.
1713 @end deffn
1715 @deffn {Procedure} add-particle-emitter @var{particles} @var{emitter}
1716 Add @var{emitter} to @var{particles}.
1717 @end deffn
1719 @deffn {Procedure} remove-particle-emitter @var{particles} @var{emitter}
1720 Remove @var{emitter} to @var{particles}
1721 @end deffn
1723 @node Blending
1724 @subsection Blending
1726 Rendering a scene often involves drawing layers of objects that
1727 overlap each other. Blending determines how two overlapping pixels
1728 are combined in the final image that is rendered to the screen.
1729 Chickadee provides the following blend modes:
1731 @itemize
1733 @item @code{replace}
1734 Use the latest color, ignoring all others.
1736 @item @code{alpha}
1737 Blend pixels according to the values of their alpha channels. This is
1738 the most commonly used blend mode and thus is Chickadee's default
1739 mode.
1741 @item @code{add}
1742 Add all pixel color values together. The more colors blended
1743 together, the more white the final color becomes.
1745 @item @code{subtract}
1746 Subtract all pixel color values. The more colors blended together,
1747 the more black the final color becomes.
1749 @item @code{multiply}
1751 @item @code{darken}
1753 @item @code{lighten}
1755 @item @code{screen}
1757 @end itemize
1759 @node Framebuffers
1760 @subsection Framebuffers
1762 A framebuffer is a chunk of memory that the GPU can render things
1763 onto. By default, the framebuffer that is used for rendering is the
1764 one belonging to the game window, but custom framebuffers can be used
1765 as well. A common use-case for custom framebuffers is applying
1766 post-processing effects: The entire scene is rendered to a
1767 framebuffer, and then the contents of that framebuffer are applied to
1768 a post-processing shader and rendered to the game window. The
1769 post-processing shader could do any number of things: scaling,
1770 antialiasing, motion blur, etc.
1772 @deffn {Procedure} make-framebuffer @var{width} @var{height} [#:min-filter 'linear] [#:mag-filter 'linear] [#:wrap-s 'repeat] [#:wrap-t 'repeat]
1774 Create a new framebuffer that is @var{width} pixels wide and @var{height} pixels high.
1776 @var{min-filter} and @var{mag-filter} determine the scaling algorithm
1777 applied to the framebuffer when rendering. By default, linear scaling
1778 is used in both cases. To perform no smoothing at all, use
1779 @code{nearest} for simple nearest neighbor scaling. This is typically
1780 the best choice for pixel art games.
1781 @end deffn
1783 @deffn {Procedure} framebuffer? @var{obj}
1784 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a framebuffer.
1785 @end deffn
1787 @deffn {Procedure} framebuffer-texture @var{fb}
1788 Return the texture backing the framebuffer @var{fb}.
1789 @end deffn
1791 @deffn {Procedure} framebuffer-viewport @var{fb}
1792 Return the default viewport (@pxref{Viewports}) used by the
1793 framebuffer @var{fb}.
1794 @end deffn
1796 @deffn {Procedure} null-framebuffer
1797 The default framebuffer.
1798 @end deffn
1800 @node Viewports
1801 @subsection Viewports
1803 A viewport represents a subset of the screen (or framebuffer). When
1804 rendering a frame, the resulting image will only appear within that
1805 viewport. These aren't often needed, and Chickadee's default viewport
1806 occupies the entire screen, but there are certain situations where
1807 they are useful. For example, a split-screen multiplayer game may
1808 render to two different viewports, each occupying a different half of
1809 the screen. For information about how to set the current viewport,
1810 see @code{with-viewport} in @ref{Rendering Engine}.
1812 The @code{(chickadee render viewport)} module provides the following
1813 API:
1815 @deffn {Procedure} make-viewport @var{x} @var{y} @var{width} @var{height} @
1816 [#:clear-color] [#:clear-flags]
1818 Create a viewport that covers an area of the window starting from
1819 coordinates (@var{x}, @var{y}) and spanning @var{width} @code{x}
1820 @var{height} pixels. Fill the viewport with @var{clear-color} when
1821 clearing the screen. Clear the buffers denoted by the list of symbols
1822 in @var{clear-flags}.
1824 Possible values for @var{clear-flags} are @var{color-buffer},
1825 @var{depth-buffer}, @var{accum-buffer}, and @var{stencil-buffer}.
1826 @end deffn
1828 @deffn {Procedure} viewport? @var{obj}
1829 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a viewport.
1830 @end deffn
1832 @deffn {Procedure} viewport-x @var{viewport}
1833 Return the left edge of @var{viewport}.
1834 @end deffn
1836 @deffn {Procedure} viewport-y @var{viewport}
1837 Return the bottom edge of @var{viewport}.
1838 @end deffn
1840 @deffn {Procedure} viewport-width @var{viewport}
1841 Return the width of @var{viewport}.
1842 @end deffn
1844 @deffn {Procedure} viewport-height @var{viewport}
1845 Return the height of @var{viewport}.
1846 @end deffn
1848 @deffn {Procedure} viewport-clear-color @var{viewport}
1849 Return the clear color for @var{viewport}.
1850 @end deffn
1852 @deffn {Procedure} viewport-clear-flags @var{viewport}
1853 Return the list of clear flags for @var{viewport}.
1854 @end deffn
1856 @node Rendering Engine
1857 @subsection Rendering Engine
1859 Chickadee defines rendering using a metaphor familiar to Scheme
1860 programmers: procedure application. A shader (@pxref{Shaders}) is
1861 like a procedure for the GPU to apply. Shaders are passed arguments:
1862 A vertex array containing the geometry to render (@pxref{Buffers}) and
1863 zero or more keyword arguments that the shader understands. Similar
1864 to how Scheme has @code{apply} for calling procedures, Chickadee
1865 provides @code{gpu-apply} for calling shaders.
1867 Additionally, there is some dynamic state that effects how
1868 @code{gpu-apply} will behave. Things like the current viewport,
1869 framebuffer, and blend mode are stored as dynamic state because it
1870 would be tedious to have to have to specify them each time
1871 @code{gpu-apply} is called.
1873 The following procedures and syntax can be found in the
1874 @code{(chickadee render)} module.
1876 @deffn {Syntax} gpu-apply @var{shader} @var{vertex-array} @
1877 [#:uniform-key @var{uniform-value} ...]
1878 @deffnx {Syntax} gpu-apply* @var{shader} @var{vertex-array} @
1879 @var{count} [#:uniform-key @var{uniform-value} ...]
1881 Render @var{vertex-array} using @var{shader} with the uniform values
1882 specified in the following keyword arguments.
1884 While @code{gpu-apply} will draw every vertex in @var{vertex-array},
1885 @code{gpu-apply*} will only draw @var{count} vertices.
1886 @end deffn
1888 @deffn {Syntax} gpu-apply/instanced @var{shader} @var{vertex-array} @
1889 @var{n} [#:uniform-key @var{uniform-value} ...]
1890 @deffnx {Syntax} gpu-apply/instanced @var{shader} @var{vertex-array} @
1891 @var{count} @var{n} [#:uniform-key @var{uniform-value} ...]
1893 Render @var{vertex-array} @var{n} times using @var{shader} with the
1894 uniform values specified in the following keyword arguments.
1896 Instanced rendering is very beneficial for rendering the same object
1897 many times with only small differences for each one. For example, the
1898 particle effects described in @ref{Particles} use instanced rendering.
1900 While @code{gpu-apply/instanced} will draw every vertex in
1901 @var{vertex-array}, @code{gpu-apply*} will only draw @var{count}
1902 vertices.
1903 @end deffn
1905 @deffn {Procedure} current-viewport
1906 Return the currently bound viewport (@pxref{Viewports}).
1907 @end deffn
1909 @deffn {Procedure} current-framebuffer
1910 Return the currently bound framebuffer (@pxref{Framebuffers}).
1911 @end deffn
1913 @deffn {Procedure} current-blend-mode
1914 Return the currently bound blend mode (@pxref{Blending}).
1915 @end deffn
1917 @deffn {Procedure} current-depth-test
1918 Return @code{#t} if depth testing is currently enabled (@pxref{Blending}).
1919 @end deffn
1921 @deffn {Procedure} current-texture
1922 Return the currently bound texture (@pxref{Textures}).
1923 @end deffn
1925 @deffn {Procedure} current-projection
1926 Return the currently bound projection matrix (@pxref{Matrices}).
1927 @end deffn
1929 @deffn {Syntax} with-viewport @var{viewport} @var{body} ...
1930 Evaluate @var{body} with the current viewport bound to @var{viewport} (@pxref{Viewports}).
1931 @end deffn
1933 @deffn {Syntax} with-framebuffer @var{framebuffer} @var{body} ...
1934 Evaluate @var{body} with the current framebuffer bound to
1935 @var{framebuffer} (@pxref{Framebuffers}).
1936 @end deffn
1938 @deffn {Syntax} with-blend-mode @var{blend-mode} @var{body} ...
1939 Evaluate @var{body} with the current blend mode bound to
1940 @var{blend-mode} (@pxref{Blending}).
1941 @end deffn
1943 @deffn {Syntax} with-depth-test @var{depth-test?} @var{body} ...
1944 Evaluate @var{body} with the depth-test disabled if @var{depth-test?}
1945 is @code{#f}, or enabled otherwise (@pxref{Blending}).
1946 @end deffn
1948 @deffn {Syntax} with-texture @var{texture} @var{body} ...
1949 Evaluate @var{body} with the current texture bound to @var{texture}
1950 (@pxref{Textures}).
1951 @end deffn
1953 @deffn {Syntax} with-projection @var{projection} @var{body} ...
1954 Evaluate @var{body} with the current projection matrix bound to
1955 @var{projection} (@pxref{Matrices}).
1956 @end deffn
1958 @node Buffers
1959 @subsection Buffers
1961 Alright, let's brush aside all of those pretty high level abstractions
1962 and discuss what is going on under the hood. The GPU exists as a
1963 discrete piece of hardware separate from the CPU. In order to make it
1964 draw things, we must ship lots of data out of our memory space and
1965 into the GPU. The @code{(chickadee render buffer}) module provides an
1966 API for manipulating GPU buffers.
1968 In OpenGL terminology, a chunk of data allocated on the GPU is a
1969 ``vertex buffer object'' or VBO. For example, here is a bytevector
1970 that could be transformed into a GPU buffer that packs together vertex
1971 position and texture coordinates:
1973 @example
1974 (use-modules (chickadee render buffer) (srfi srfi-4))
1975 (define data
1976 (f32vector -8.0 -8.0 ; 2D vertex
1977 0.0 0.0 ; 2D texture coordinate
1978 8.0 -8.0 ; 2D vertex
1979 1.0 0.0 ; 2D texture coordinate
1980 8.0 8.0 ; 2D vertex
1981 1.0 1.0 ; 2D texture coordinate
1982 -8.0 8.0 ; 2D vertex
1983 0.0 1.0)) ; 2D texture coordinate
1984 @end example
1986 This data represents a textured 16x16 square centered on the
1987 origin. To send this data to the GPU, the @code{make-buffer} procedure
1988 is needed:
1990 @example
1991 (define buffer (make-buffer data #:stride 16))
1992 @end example
1994 The @code{#:stride} keyword argument indicates how many bytes make up
1995 each element of the buffer. In this case, there are 4 floats per
1996 element: 2 for the vertex, and 2 for the texture coordinate. A 32-bit
1997 float is 4 bytes in length, so the buffer's stride is 16.
1999 Within a VBO, one or more ``attributes'', as OpenGL calls them, may be
2000 present. Attributes are subregions within the buffer that have a
2001 particular data type. In this case, there are two attributes packed
2002 into the buffer. To provided a typed view into a buffer, the
2003 @code{make-typed-buffer} procedure is needed:
2005 @example
2006 (define vertices
2007 (make-typed-buffer #:buffer buffer
2008 #:type 'vec2
2009 #:component-type 'float
2010 #:length 4))
2011 (define texcoords
2012 (make-typed-buffer #:buffer buffer
2013 #:type 'vec2
2014 #:component-type 'float
2015 #:length 4
2016 #:offset 8))
2017 @end example
2019 To render a square, the GPU needs to draw two triangles, which means
2020 we need 6 vertices in total. However, the above buffer only contains
2021 data for 4 vertices. This is becase there are only 4 unique vertices
2022 for a square, but 2 of them must be repeated for each triangle. To
2023 work with deduplicated vertex data, an ``index buffer'' must be
2024 created.
2026 @example
2027 (define index-buffer
2028 (make-buffer (u32vector 0 3 2 0 2 1)
2029 #:target 'index)
2030 (define indices
2031 (make-typed-buffer #:type 'scalar
2032 #:component-type 'unsigned-int
2033 #:buffer index-buffer))
2034 @end example
2036 Note the use of the @code{#:target} keyword argument. It is required
2037 because the GPU treats index data in a special way and must be told
2038 which data is index data.
2040 Now that the typed buffers representing each attribute have been
2041 created, all that's left is to bind them all together in a ``vertex
2042 array object'', or VAO. Vertex arrays associate each typed buffer
2043 with an attribute index on the GPU. The indices that are chosen must
2044 correspond with the indices that the shader (@pxref{Shaders}) expects
2045 for each attribute.
2047 @example
2048 (define vertex-array
2049 (make-vertex-array #:indices indices
2050 #:attributes `((0 . ,vertices)
2051 (1 . ,texcoords))))
2052 @end example
2054 With the vertex array created, the GPU is now fully aware of how to
2055 interpret the data that it has been given in the original buffer.
2056 Actually rendering this square is left as an exercise to the reader.
2057 See the @ref{Shaders} section and the @code{gpu-apply} procedure in
2058 @ref{Rendering Engine} for the remaining pieces of a successful draw
2059 call. Additionally, consider reading the source code for sprites,
2060 shapes, or particles to see GPU buffers in action.
2062 Without further ado, the API reference:
2064 @deffn {Procedure} make-buffer @var{data} [#:name "anonymous"] @
2065 [#:length] [#:offset 0] [#:stride 0] [#:target @code{vertex}] @
2066 [#:usage @code{static}]
2068 Upload @var{data}, a bytevector, to the GPU. By default, the entire
2069 bytevector is uploaded. A subset of the data may be uploaded by
2070 specifying the @var{offset}, the index of the first byte to be
2071 uploaded, and @var{length}, the number of bytes to upload.
2073 If @var{data} is @code{#f}, allocate @var{length} bytes of fresh GPU
2074 memory instead.
2076 @var{target} and @var{usage} are hints that tell the GPU how the
2077 buffer is intended to be used.
2079 @var{target} may be:
2081 @itemize
2082 @item @code{vertex}
2083 Vertex attribute data.
2085 @item @code{index}
2086 Index buffer data.
2088 @end itemize
2090 @var{usage} may be:
2092 @itemize
2093 @item @code{static}
2094 The buffer data will not be modified after creation.
2096 @item @code{stream}
2097 The buffer data will be modified frequently.
2099 @end itemize
2101 @var{name} is simply an arbitrary string for debugging purposes that
2102 is never sent to the GPU.
2103 @end deffn
2105 @deffn {Procedure} buffer? @var{obj}
2106 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a GPU buffer.
2107 @end deffn
2109 @deffn {Procedure} index-buffer? @var{buffer}
2110 Return @code{#t} if @var{buffer} is an index buffer.
2111 @end deffn
2113 @defvar null-buffer
2114 Represents the absence of a buffer.
2115 @end defvar
2117 @deffn {Procedure} buffer-name @var{buffer}
2118 Return the name of @var{buffer}.
2119 @end deffn
2121 @deffn {Procedure} buffer-length @var{buffer}
2122 Return the length of @var{buffer}.
2123 @end deffn
2125 @deffn {Procedure} buffer-stride @var{buffer}
2126 Return the amount of space, in bytes, between each element in
2127 @var{buffer}.
2128 @end deffn
2130 @deffn {Procedure} buffer-target @var{buffer}
2131 Return the the intended usage of @var{buffer}, either @code{vertex} or
2132 @code{index}.
2133 @end deffn
2135 @deffn {Procedure} buffer-usage @var{buffer}
2136 Return the intended usage of @var{buffer}, either @code{static} for
2137 buffer data that will not change once sent to the GPU, or
2138 @code{stream} for buffer data that will be frequently updated from the
2139 client-side.
2140 @end deffn
2142 @deffn {Procedure} buffer-data @var{buffer}
2143 Return a bytevector containing all the data within @var{buffer}. If
2144 @var{buffer} has not been mapped (see @code{with-mapped-buffer}) then
2145 this procedure will return @code{#f}.
2146 @end deffn
2148 @deffn {Syntax} with-mapped-buffer @var{buffer} @var{body} @dots{}
2149 Evaluate @var{body} in the context of @var{buffer} having its data
2150 synced from GPU memory to RAM. In this context, @code{buffer-data}
2151 will return a bytevector of all the data stored in @var{buffer}. When
2152 program execution exits this form, the data (including any
2153 modifications) is synced back to the GPU.
2155 This form is useful for streaming buffers that need to update their
2156 contents dynamically, such as a sprite batch.
2157 @end deffn
2159 @deffn {Procedure} make-typed-buffer #:buffer #:type @
2160 #:component-type #:length [#:offset 0] [#:divisor] @
2161 [#:name "anonymous"]
2163 Return a new typed buffer view for @var{buffer} starting at byte index
2164 @var{offset} of @var{length} elements, where each element is of
2165 @var{type} and composed of @var{component-type} values.
2167 Valid values for @var{type} are:
2169 @itemize
2170 @item @code{scalar}
2171 single number
2173 @item @code{vec2}
2174 2D vector
2176 @item @code{vec3}
2177 3D vector
2179 @item @code{vec4}
2180 4D vector
2182 @item @code{mat2}
2183 2x2 matrix
2185 @item @code{mat3}
2186 3x3 matrix
2188 @item @code{mat4}
2189 4x4 matrix
2190 @end itemize
2192 Valid values for @var{component-type} are:
2194 @itemize
2196 @item @code{byte}
2197 @item @code{unsigned-byte}
2198 @item @code{short}
2199 @item @code{unsigned-short}
2200 @item @code{int}
2201 @item @code{unsigned-int}
2202 @item @code{float}
2203 @item @code{double}
2205 @end itemize
2207 @var{divisor} is only needed for instanced rendering applications (see
2208 @code{gpu-apply/instanced} in @ref{Rendering Engine}) and represents
2209 how many instances each vertex element applies to. A divisor of 0
2210 means that a single element is used for every instance and is used for
2211 the data being instanced. A divisor of 1 means that each element is
2212 used for 1 instance. A divisor of 2 means that each element is used
2213 for 2 instances, and so on.
2214 @end deffn
2216 @deffn {Procedure} typed-buffer? @var{obj}
2217 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a typed buffer.
2218 @end deffn
2220 @deffn {Procedure} typed-buffer->buffer @var{typed-buffer}
2221 Return the buffer that @var{typed-buffer} is using.
2222 @end deffn
2224 @deffn {Procedure} typed-buffer-name @var{typed-buffer}
2225 Return the name of @var{typed-buffer}.
2226 @end deffn
2228 @deffn {Procedure} typed-buffer-offset @var{typed-buffer}
2229 Return the byte offset of @var{typed-buffer}.
2230 @end deffn
2232 @deffn {Procedure} typed-buffer-type @var{typed-buffer}
2233 Return the data type of @var{typed-buffer}.
2234 @end deffn
2236 @deffn {Procedure} typed-buffer-component-type @var{typed-buffer}
2237 Return the component data type of @var{typed-buffer}
2238 @end deffn
2240 @deffn {Procedure} typed-buffer-divisor @var{typed-buffer}
2241 Return the instance divisor for @var{typed-buffer}.
2242 @end deffn
2244 @deffn {Syntax} with-mapped-typed-buffer @var{typed-buffer} @var{body} @dots{}
2246 Evaluate @var{body} in the context of @var{typed-buffer} having its
2247 data synced from GPU memory to RAM. See @code{with-mapped-buffer} for
2248 more information.
2249 @end deffn
2251 @deffn {Procedure} make-vertex-array #:indices #:attributes @
2252 [#:mode @code{triangles}]
2254 Return a new vertex array using the index data within the typed buffer
2255 @var{indices} and the vertex attribute data within @var{attributes}.
2257 @var{attributes} is an alist mapping shader attribute indices to typed
2258 buffers containing vertex data:
2260 @example
2261 `((1 . ,typed-buffer-a)
2262 (2 . ,typed-buffer-b)
2263 ...)
2264 @end example
2266 By default, the vertex array is interpreted as containing a series of
2267 triangles. If another primtive type is desired, the @var{mode}
2268 keyword argument may be overridden. The following values are
2269 supported:
2271 @itemize
2272 @item @code{points}
2273 @item @code{lines}
2274 @item @code{line-loop}
2275 @item @code{line-strip}
2276 @item @code{triangles}
2277 @item @code{triangle-strip}
2278 @item @code{triangle-fan}
2279 @end itemize
2281 @end deffn
2283 @defvar null-vertex-array
2284 Represents the absence of a vertex array.
2285 @end defvar
2287 @deffn {Procedure} vertex-array? @var{obj}
2288 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a vertex array.
2289 @end deffn
2291 @deffn {Procedure} vertex-array-indices @var{vertex-array}
2292 Return the typed buffer containing index data for @var{vertex-array}.
2293 @end deffn
2295 @deffn {Procedure} vertex-array-attributes @var{vertex-array}
2296 Return the attribute index -> typed buffer mapping of vertex attribute
2297 data for @var{vertex-array}.
2298 @end deffn
2300 @deffn {Procedure} vertex-array-mode @var{vertex-array}
2301 Return the primitive rendering mode for @var{vertex-array}.
2302 @end deffn
2304 @node Shaders
2305 @subsection Shaders
2307 Shaders are programs that the GPU can evaluate that allow the
2308 programmer to completely customized the final output of a GPU draw
2309 call. The @code{(chickadee render shader)} module provides an API for
2310 building custom shaders.
2312 Shaders are written in the OpenGL Shading Language, or GLSL for short.
2313 Chickadee aspires to provide a domain specific language for writing
2314 shaders in Scheme, but we are not there yet.
2316 Shader programs consist of two components: A vertex shader and a
2317 fragment shader. A vertex shader receives vertex data (position
2318 coordinates, texture coordinates, normals, etc.) and transforms them
2319 as desired, whereas a fragment shader controls the color of each
2320 pixel.
2322 Sample vertex shader:
2324 @example
2325 @verbatim
2326 #version 130
2328 in vec2 position;
2329 in vec2 tex;
2330 out vec2 fragTex;
2331 uniform mat4 mvp;
2333 void main(void) {
2334 fragTex = tex;
2335 gl_Position = mvp * vec4(position.xy, 0.0, 1.0);
2336 }
2337 @end verbatim
2338 @end example
2340 Sample fragment shader:
2342 @example
2343 @verbatim
2344 #version 130
2346 in vec2 fragTex;
2347 uniform sampler2D colorTexture;
2349 void main (void) {
2350 gl_FragColor = texture2D(colorTexture, fragTex);
2351 }
2352 @end verbatim
2353 @end example
2355 This manual will not cover GLSL features and syntax as there is lots
2356 of information already available about this topic.
2358 One way to think about rendering with shaders, and the metaphor
2359 Chickadee uses, is to think about it as a function call: The shader is
2360 a function, and it is applied to some ``attributes'' (positional
2361 arguments), and some ``uniforms'' (keyword arguments).
2363 @example
2364 (define my-shader (load-shader "vert.glsl" "frag.glsl"))
2365 (define vertices (make-vertex-array ...))
2366 (gpu-apply my-shader vertices #:color red)
2367 @end example
2369 @xref{Rendering Engine} for more details about the @code{gpu-apply}
2370 procedure.
2372 Shaders are incredibly powerful tools, and there's more information
2373 about them than we could ever fit into this manual, so we highly
2374 recommend searching the web for more information and examples. What
2375 we can say, though, is how to use our API:
2377 @deffn {Procedure} strings->shader @var{vertex-source} @var{fragment-source}
2378 Compile @var{vertex-source}, the GLSL code for the vertex shader, and
2379 @var{fragment-source}, the GLSL code for the fragment shader, into a
2380 GPU shader program.
2381 @end deffn
2383 @deffn {Procedure} load-shader @var{vertex-source-file} @
2384 @var{fragment-source-file}
2386 Compile the GLSL source code within @var{vertex-source-file} and
2387 @var{fragment-source-file} into a GPU shader program.
2388 @end deffn
2390 @deffn {Procedure} make-shader @var{vertex-port} @var{fragment-port}
2391 Read GLSL source from @var{vertex-port} and @var{fragment-port} and
2392 compile them into a GPU shader program.
2393 @end deffn
2395 @deffn {Procedure} shader? @var{obj}
2396 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a shader.
2397 @end deffn
2399 @defvar null-shader
2400 Represents the absence shader program.
2401 @end defvar
2403 @deffn {Procedure} shader-uniform @var{shader} @var{name}
2404 Return the metadata for the uniform @var{name} in @var{shader}.
2405 @end deffn
2407 @deffn {Procedure} shader-uniforms @var{shader}
2408 Return a hash table of uniforms for @var{shader}.
2409 @end deffn
2411 @deffn {Procedure} shader-attributes @var{shader}
2412 Return a hash table of attributes for @var{shader}.
2413 @end deffn
2415 @deffn {Procedure} uniform? @var{obj}
2416 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a uniform.
2417 @end deffn
2419 @deffn {Procedure} uniform-name @var{uniform}
2420 Return the variable name of @var{uniform}.
2421 @end deffn
2423 @deffn {Procedure} uniform-type @var{uniform}
2424 Return the data type of @var{uniform}.
2425 @end deffn
2427 @deffn {Procedure} uniform-value @var{uniform}
2428 Return the current value of @var{uniform}.
2429 @end deffn
2431 @deffn {Procedure} uniform-default-value @var{uniform}
2432 Return the default value of @var{uniform}.
2433 @end deffn
2435 @deffn {Procedure} attribute? @var{obj}
2436 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is an attribute.
2437 @end deffn
2439 @deffn {Procedure} attribute-name @var{attribute}
2440 Return the variable name of @var{attribute}.
2441 @end deffn
2443 @deffn {Procedure} attribute-location @var{attribute}
2444 Return the binding location of @var{attribute}.
2445 @end deffn
2447 @deffn {Procedure} attribute-type @var{attribute}
2448 Return the data type of @var{attribute}.
2449 @end deffn
2451 @node Scripting
2452 @section Scripting
2454 Game logic is a web of asynchronous events that are carefully
2455 coordinated to bring the game world to life. In order to make an
2456 enemy follow and attack the player, or move an NPC back and forth in
2457 front of the item shop, or do both at the same time, a scripting
2458 system is a necessity. Chickadee comes with an asynchronous
2459 programming system in the @code{(chickadee scripting)} module.
2460 Lightweight, cooperative threads known as ``scripts'' allow the
2461 programmer to write asynchronous code as if it were synchronous, and
2462 allow many such ``threads'' to run concurrently.
2464 But before we dig deeper into scripts, let's discuss the simple act
2465 of scheduling tasks.
2467 @menu
2468 * Agendas:: Scheduling tasks.
2469 * Scripts:: Cooperative multitasking.
2470 * Tweening:: Animations.
2471 * Channels:: Publish data to listeners.
2472 @end menu
2474 @node Agendas
2475 @subsection Agendas
2477 To schedule a task to be performed later, an ``agenda'' is used.
2478 There is a default, global agenda that is ready to be used, or
2479 additional agendas may be created for different purposes. The
2480 following example prints the text ``hello'' when the agenda has
2481 advanced to time unit 10.
2483 @example
2484 (at 10 (display "hello\n"))
2485 @end example
2487 Most of the time it is more convenient to schedule tasks relative to
2488 the current time. This is where @code{after} comes in handy:
2490 @example
2491 (after 10 (display "hello\n"))
2492 @end example
2494 Time units in the agenda are in no way connected to real time. It's
2495 up to the programmer to decide what agenda time means. A simple and
2496 effective approach is to map each call of the update hook
2497 (@pxref{Kernel}) to 1 unit of agenda time, like so:
2499 @example
2500 (add-hook! update-hook (lambda (dt) (update-agenda 1)))
2501 @end example
2503 It is important to call @code{update-agenda} periodically, otherwise
2504 no tasks will ever be run!
2506 In addition to using the global agenda, it is useful to have multiple
2507 agendas for different purposes. For example, the game world can use a
2508 different agenda than the user interface, so that pausing the game is
2509 a simple matter of not updating the world's agenda while continuing to
2510 update the user interface's agenda. The current agenda is dynamically
2511 scoped and can be changed using the @code{with-agenda} special form:
2513 @example
2514 (define game-world-agenda (make-agenda))
2516 (with-agenda game-world-agenda
2517 (at 60 (spawn-goblin))
2518 (at 120 (spawn-goblin))
2519 (at 240 (spawn-goblin-king)))
2520 @end example
2522 @deffn {Procedure} make-agenda
2523 Return a new task scheduler.
2524 @end deffn
2526 @deffn {Procedure} agenda? @var{obj}
2527 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is an agenda.
2528 @end deffn
2530 @deffn {Procedure} current-agenda
2531 @deffnx {Procedure} current-agenda @var{agenda}
2532 When called with no arguments, return the current agenda. When called
2533 with one argument, set the current agenda to @var{agenda}.
2534 @end deffn
2536 @deffn {Syntax} with-agenda @var{agenda} @var{body} @dots{}
2537 Evaluate @var{body} with the current agenda set to @var{agenda}.
2538 @end deffn
2540 @deffn {Procedure} agenda-time
2541 Return the current agenda time.
2542 @end deffn
2544 @deffn {Procedure} update-agenda @var{dt}
2545 Advance the current agenda by @var{dt}.
2546 @end deffn
2548 @deffn {Procedure} schedule-at @var{time} @var{thunk}
2549 Schedule @var{thunk}, a procedure of zero arguments, to be run at
2550 @var{time}.
2551 @end deffn
2553 @deffn {Procedure} schedule-after @var{delay} @var{thunk}
2554 Schedule @var{thunk}, a procedure of zero arguments, to be run after
2555 @var{delay}.
2556 @end deffn
2558 @deffn {Procedure} schedule-every @var{interval} @var{thunk} [@var{n}]
2559 Schedule @var{thunk}, a procedure of zero arguments, to be run every
2560 @var{interval} amount of time. Repeat this @var{n} times, or
2561 indefinitely if not specified.
2562 @end deffn
2564 @deffn {Syntax} at @var{time} @var{body} @dots{}
2565 Schedule @var{body} to be evaluated at @var{time}.
2566 @end deffn
2568 @deffn {Syntax} after @var{delay} @var{body} @dots{}
2569 Schedule @var{body} to be evaluated after @var{delay}.
2570 @end deffn
2572 @deffn {Syntax} every @var{interval} @var{body} @dots{}
2573 @deffnx {Syntax} every (@var{interval} @var{n}) @var{body} @dots{}
2574 Schedule @var{body} to be evaluated every @var{interval} amount of
2575 time. Repeat this @var{n} times, or indefinitely if not specified.
2576 @end deffn
2578 @node Scripts
2579 @subsection Scripts
2581 Now that we can schedule tasks, let's take things to the next level.
2582 It sure would be great if we could make procedures that described a
2583 series of actions that happened over time, especially if we could do
2584 so without contorting our code into a nest of callback procedures.
2585 This is where scripts come in. With scripts we can write code in a
2586 linear way, in a manner that appears to be synchronous, but with the
2587 ability to suspend periodically in order to let other scripts have a
2588 turn and prevent blocking the game loop. Building on top of the
2589 scheduling that agendas provide, here is a script that models a child
2590 trying to get their mother's attention:
2592 @example
2593 (script
2594 (while #t
2595 (display "mom!")
2596 (newline)
2597 (sleep 60))) ; where 60 = 1 second of real time
2598 @end example
2600 This code runs in an endless loop, but the @code{sleep} procedure
2601 suspends the script and schedules it to be run later by the agenda.
2602 So, after each iteration of the loop, control is returned back to the
2603 game loop and the program is not stuck spinning in a loop that will
2604 never exit. Pretty neat, eh?
2606 Scripts can suspend to any capable handler, not just the agenda.
2607 The @code{yield} procedure will suspend the current script and pass
2608 its ``continuation'' to a handler procedure. This handler procedure
2609 could do anything. Perhaps the handler stashes the continuation
2610 somewhere where it will be resumed when the user presses a specific
2611 key on the keyboard, or maybe it will be resumed when the player picks
2612 up an item off of the dungeon floor; the sky is the limit.
2614 Sometimes it is necessary to abruptly terminate a script after it has
2615 been started. For example, when an enemy is defeated their AI routine
2616 needs to be shut down. When a script is spawned, a handle to that
2617 script is returned that can be used to cancel it when desired.
2619 @example
2620 (define script (script (while #t (display "hey\n") (sleep 60))))
2621 ;; sometime later
2622 (cancel-script script)
2623 @end example
2625 @deffn {Procedure} spawn-script @var{thunk}
2626 Apply @var{thunk} as a script and return a handle to it.
2627 @end deffn
2629 @deffn {Syntax} script @var{body} @dots{}
2630 Evaluate @var{body} as a script and return a handle to it.
2631 @end deffn
2633 @deffn {Procedure} script? @var{obj}
2634 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a script handle.
2635 @end deffn
2637 @deffn {Procedure} script-cancelled? @var{obj}
2638 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} has been cancelled.
2639 @end deffn
2641 @deffn {Procedure} script-running? @var{obj}
2642 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} has not yet terminated or been
2643 cancelled.
2644 @end deffn
2646 @deffn {Procedure} script-complete? @var{obj}
2647 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} has terminated.
2648 @end deffn
2650 @deffn {Procedure} cancel-script @var{co}
2651 Prevent further execution of the script @var{co}.
2652 @end deffn
2654 @deffn {Procedure} yield @var{handler}
2655 Suspend the current script and pass its continuation to the
2656 procedure @var{handler}.
2657 @end deffn
2659 @deffn {Procedure} sleep @var{duration}
2660 Wait @var{duration} before resuming the current script.
2661 @end deffn
2663 @deffn {Syntax} forever @var{body} @dots{}
2664 Evaluate @var{body} in an endless loop.
2665 @end deffn
2667 @node Tweening
2668 @subsection Tweening
2670 Tweening is the process of transitioning something from an initial
2671 state to a final state over a pre-determined period of time. In other
2672 words, tweening is a way to create animation. The @code{tween}
2673 procedure can be used within any script like so:
2675 @example
2676 (define x 0)
2677 (script
2678 ;; 0 to 100 in 60 ticks of the agenda.
2679 (tween 60 0 100 (lambda (y) (set! x y))))
2680 @end example
2682 @deffn {Procedure} tween @var{duration} @var{start} @var{end} @var{proc} [#:step 1 #:ease @code{smoothstep} #:interpolate @code{lerp}]
2683 Transition a value from @var{start} to @var{end} over @var{duration},
2684 sending each succesive value to @var{proc}. @var{step} controls the
2685 amount of time between each update of the animation.
2687 To control how the animation goes from the initial to final state, an
2688 ``easing'' procedure may be specified. By default, the
2689 @code{smoothstep} easing is used, which is a more pleasing default
2690 than a simplistic linear function. @xref{Easings} for a complete list
2691 of available easing procedures.
2693 The @var{interpolate} procedure computes the values in between
2694 @var{start} and @var{end}. By default, linear interpolation (``lerp''
2695 for short) is used.
2696 @end deffn
2698 @node Channels
2699 @subsection Channels
2701 Channels are a tool for communicating amongst different scripts. One
2702 script can write a value to the channel and another can read from it.
2703 Reading or writing to a channel suspends that script until there is
2704 someone on the other end of the line to complete the transaction.
2706 Here's a simplistic example:
2708 @example
2709 (define c (make-channel))
2711 (script
2712 (forever
2713 (let ((item (channel-get c)))
2714 (pk 'got item))))
2716 (script
2717 (channel-put c 'sword)
2718 (channel-put c 'shield)
2719 (channel-put c 'potion))
2720 @end example
2722 @deffn {Procedure} make-channel
2723 Return a new channel
2724 @end deffn
2726 @deffn {Procedure} channel? @var{obj}
2727 Return @code{#t} if @var{obj} is a channel.
2728 @end deffn
2730 @deffn {Procedure} channel-get @var{channel}
2731 Retrieve a value from @var{channel}. The current script suspends
2732 until a value is available.
2733 @end deffn
2735 @deffn {Procedure} channel-put @var{channel} @var{data}
2736 Send @var{data} to @var{channel}. The current script suspends until
2737 another script is available to retrieve the value.
2738 @end deffn
2740 A low-level API also exists for using channels outside of a script via
2741 callback procedures:
2743 @deffn {Procedure} channel-get! @var{channel} @var{proc}
2744 Asynchronously retrieve a value from @var{channel} and call @var{proc}
2745 with that value.
2746 @end deffn
2748 @deffn {Procedure} channel-put! @var{channel} @var{data} [@var{thunk}]
2749 Asynchronously send @var{data} to @var{channel} and call @var{thunk}
2750 after it has been received.
2751 @end deffn